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组织结构,管理和变革

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组织结构,管理和变革 2020年7月12日星期日 ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE & MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP and CHANGE (1) PREAMBLE (click on the speaker icon below) ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE & MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP and CHANGE (1) Leading change is one of the greatest challenges for leaders. Change can be inconvenient, painful and downright scary. Even when a change appears to be good for individual employees as well as the organisation, it can lead to decreased morale, lower commitment and diminished trust if not handled carefully. Some of the most difficult changes are those related to Organisational STRUCTURE and CULTURE. Changing the Organisational Structure involves redefining positions and responsibilities, re-engineering the company, redesigning jobs, departments and divisions or downsizing the organisation. Daft, 2008 ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE & MANAGEMENT ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE & MANAGEMENT THE CLASSICAL APPROACH The Classical Approach to organisation, structure and management places an emphasis on formal structures, rules, hierarchies and common principles or organisation. The Classical Approach is generally associated with the work of: 1. F.W.Taylor (1911) - Scientific Management 2. Henri Fayol (1916) - Management Functions 3. Max Weber (1947) - Bureaucracy ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE & MANAGEMENT THE CLASSICAL APPROACH 1. The Principles of Scientific Management (Taylorism) Frederick F. Taylor (1911) 1.Develop a science for each element of a man’s work, which replaces the old “rule-of thumb” method. 2.Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could. 3.Managers heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed. 4.There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen. The management take over all work for which they are better fitted than the workmen, while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men. Embodied in the above are: ?Replacement of the old rule-of-thumb method by a more scientific measurement of work derived from time-and-motion studies. ?Standardisation of small work. ?Sub-division of labour – each act preceded by preparatory acts by other workers (Specialisation) ?Work planned by managers in advance ?Workers given detailed and written instructions on wh



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